In addition to our legal services, we provide both Orrick clients and other entities nationwide with financial services through our unique wholly owned subsidiary, BLX Group LLC, a registered municipal advisor. BLX Group’s services include financial advice, investment bidding, swap advice, program administration, arbitrage rebate and other post-issuance tax compliance, and ongoing disclosure compliance.
The statement of operations (“income statement”) contains the revenue and expense accounts of the government. The revenue accounts are divided into subaccounts, including the different types of taxes, social contributions, dividends from the public sector, and royalties from natural resources.
This approach is called accrual accounting, meaning that obligations are recognized when they are acquired, or accrued, rather than when they are paid. As the government represents the people, government debt can be seen as an indirect debt of the taxpayers. Government debt can be categorized as internal debt, owed to lenders within the country, and external debt, owed to foreign lenders. Governments usually borrow by issuing securities such as government bonds and bills. Less creditworthy countries sometimes borrow directly from commercial banks or international institutions such as the International Monetary Fund or the World Bank.
The Labor and Employment legal professionals help government employers fix the difficult problems of which arise in the office. In addition to coverage development, we offer a new wide array of teaching programs designed to retain supervisors and managers upwards to date on crucial compliance issues.
We regularly assist clients with the review and negotiation of software license, development, implementation and services agreements. We also advise clients on compliance with federal, state, and international privacy laws, including compliance with governmental standards applicable to state and federal contractors. Our cybersecurity team advises public sector entities on how to proactively limit the risks of data breaches and the ensuing liabilities. Our lawyers recognize that data exposure events are inevitable so entities must seek to be “compromise ready. ” We assist clients in reaching this goal by providing training and education, privacy and security assessments, strong data security policies, appropriate breach response plans, and attention to insurance policy and indemnification issues.
Governments have been applying these and other money-shuffling tricks since balanced budgets and municipal financing were invented. But in the aftermath of the Great Recession, short-sighted gimmicks like these became more common as governments looked for any solution to combat dwindling revenues. Revenue is back up now in most places, but some of the fiscal trickery has hardened into common practice. We served as underwriter’s counsel to Goldman Sachs & Co. and Barclays Capital in a precedent-setting transaction that serves as a model for municipalities dealing with critical long-term environmental infrastructure needs. The $350 million century-bonds issued by the District of Columbia Water & Sewer Authority represented the first municipal century bond issued by a water/wastewater utility in the United States. It was also the Authority’s inaugural green bond issue and the first independently certified green bond sold in the U. S. debt capital markets.
In addition to our legal services, we provide both Orrick clients and other entities nationwide with financial services through our unique wholly owned subsidiary, BLX Group LLC, a registered municipal advisor and investment advisor. BLX Group’s services include financial and investment advice, investment bidding, swap advice, program administration, arbitrage rebate and other post-issuance tax compliance, and ongoing disclosure compliance. Our diversity of experience, together with a focus on sophisticated, tax-driven transactions, gives us unmatched strength and breadth in analyzing and opining on public finance tax matters, as well as creating innovative solutions to tax-related problems. The Raymond James Financial Products Group is a dedicated group of marketing professionals focused on providing interest rate derivative products, services and solutions to the firm’s tax-exempt clients. These data help estimate the resources a government can potentially access to repay its debt.
Finally, the interest expense account is one of the necessary inputs to estimate the cost of servicing the debt. This functional classification allows policy makers to analyze expenditures on categories such as health, education, social protection, and environmental protection. The financial statements can provide investors with the necessary information to assess the capacity of a government to service and repay its debt, a key element determining sovereign risk, and risk premia. Like the risk of default of a private corporation, sovereign risk is a function of the level of debt, its ratio to liquid assets, revenues and expenditures, the expected growth and volatility of these revenues and expenditures, and the cost of servicing the debt. The government’s financial statements contain the relevant information for this analysis. Most government budgets are calculated on a cash basis, meaning that revenues are recognized when collected and outlays are recognized when paid. Some consider all government liabilities, including future pension payments and payments for goods and services the government has contracted for but not yet paid, as government debt.