first so that you can return and enjoy more information!
Ocean Cruises and Ocean Liners
become Vacation Cruises and Cruise Ships!
The golden age of transatlantic ocean shipping and travel
began long after Columbus' trying to prove that the earth was round. After
that time, ocean sailing vessels traveled to the new world on a rather
infrequent schedule. It was not until the first ocean steamship, the paddle
steamer "Savannah" crossed the Atlantic Ocean in 1819 that a new era in
travel heated up. Since that time, ocean cruises and
ocean liners have
become a thing of beauty and romance.
By the end of that century, and starting into the 20th century, ocean liners
had established themselves as a status symbol for their companies and their
countries on the ocean. A "battle" for ocean supremacy - Having the newest,
largest most extravagant ocean liner afloat - had begun!
Cunard Lines had, in the early 1900's two fantastic liners named Mauritania
and Lusitania sailing the ocean. In order to boost the White Star Line's (by
this time owned by International Merchant Marine) ocean liner position to
the top, director Bruce Ismay decided to build not two, but three fabulous
liners. One of these monster liners became the most infamous ocean liner in
the world. Titanic would enter the scene as the largest and most elegant
ocean cruise liner. Her sister ship, the ocean liner Olympic actually
entered service before Titanic. These two liners put White Star Line again
on top of the ocean liner heap - albeit very short lived as we all know the
fate of Titanic.
Ocean Liners to Cruise Liners
The age of the jet aircraft all but finished the era of trans-ocean cruise
liners. As the pace of business got faster, so did the travel needs of
passengers to cross the ocean. Transatlantic ocean crossings by plane meant
hours instead of days by ocean liners. There became a need to find a new
purpose for the existence of the liners. Enter the age of cruise ships.
The story of one particular ocean liner perhaps sums up this change. In the
early part of the 20th century, the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. had an
ocean crossing presence with a fleet of ocean liners. As late as the 1960's,
the company had liners built. The "Empress of Canada" joined the fleet of
ocean liners after being christened by the wife of then Prime Minister John
Diefenbaker. She joined two other "Empress" liners - "Empress of England"
and "Empress of Britain".
The Empress of Canada quickly gained a very good reputation for ocean liners
because of her stylish looks and amenities. She was a very modern ocean
liner fitted with stabilizers and was air-conditioned throughout. During the
summers, the liner made the transatlantic ocean run from Liverpool to Quebec
and Montreal where she made her turn around. In the winter, the
transatlantic ocean crossing was stopped. The ocean liners were either
terminated at Saint John, or became cruise liners sailing from New York to
During the '60's, air travel became more and more popular. The ocean
shipping companies had to find new duties for their liners. More time was
spent doing cruises and by 1970, the "Empress of Canada" became the last
ocean liner in service for Canadian Pacific. She was then only doing 13
transatlantic ocean crossings per year, and spent the rest of the time doing
cruises. Canadian Pacific decided in 1971 that it could not retain its ocean
crossing business and on November 23 of that year the ocean liner "Empress
of Canada" arrived at Liverpool for the last time. After 68 years, the North
Atlantic Ocean liner service had ended for the Canadian Pacific Railway
Fortunately, great potential was still seen in the liner. A man named Ted
Arison bought the ocean liner as the very first cruise ship for his newly
founded company - Carnival Cruise Lines. The mighty ocean liner was renamed
"Mardi Gras" and was refitted for her new cruise life. She kept her
beautiful external profile, but the liner did lose her cargo cranes that would no
longer be required as a cruise liner. Carnival decided to even keep the
general pattern of the Canadian Pacific ocean liner's funnel identification and reworked
it to identify the cruise liner as the new Carnival cruise ship.
The cruise liner had a very shaky start with the company losing money in the
early years. However, a couple of years later Carnival Cruise Lines
progressively introduce the "Fun Ships" concept and spent a whopping (at
that time) 10 million dollars in converting their ocean liner Mardi Gras. In
order to maintain their business (having only one cruise ship), Carnival
kept the liner operating while the renovations were being completed -
closing off areas of construction and thus having only about 60 percent
cruise ship occupancy available while on the ocean and seas.
Things started to turn around for Carnival Cruise Lines and by the mid '70's
they were having great success marketing the cruise liner in Canada and the
U.S. In December of 1975, Carnival purchased their second cruise ship - the
ocean liner "Queen Anna Maria". Oddly enough, this liner had been originally
named the "Empress of Britain". That's right, after many years, the two
sister ocean liners from Canadian Pacific Railway were again in the same fleet cruising the oceans
together. She was renamed "Carnivale" by the company and the two liners were
In 1977, a third cruise ship was bought for the fleet and named "Festivale".
Carnival now had a "Golden Fleet" of 3 cruise liners sailing the oceans and
was still growing in success. They ordered their first new-build cruise
liner which entered service in 1982 and was named the cruise ship "Tropicale".
From that time, Carnival Cruise Lines never looked back.
Thus the age of transatlantic ocean liners carrying travelers from one
destination to another had transformed into an age of cruise liners
transporting vacationers on exotic ocean itineraries.
For more interesting information regarding cruise ships, cruises, and cruise
destinations, check out some of the other articles on this site. You may
even find a discount cruise to your liking. Then you can book your discount
cruise on-line and get excited!
For more interesting articles about cruise ships, cruises and
other topics check out these related articles.
Cruise Ships for great cruise deals by
many of the cruise lines!
Discount cruises for Alaskan cruises,
Caribbean cruises and romantic getaways aboard magnificent cruise ships!
Related articles about cruise ships, many
cruises and other topics!